54 years ago, Memorandum Order No. 1934 was issued, probably by the Mayor of Baler, the Municipal Council or the Administrator of Baler Central School. It created a committee to “gather textbooks, manuals, course of studies and other reference of local materials”. Different sub-committees were created in the Poblacion and other barrios. These committees gathered historical datas, conducted interviews ang collected facts about the town of Baler and it’s different Barrios.
The committe chairman was Mr. Pedro A. Sindac, and the document that resulted was the Historical Data of the Municipality of Baler, Sub-Province of Aurora 1952-1953. It contained historical and cultural information about the town as well as the barrios of Bacong , Calabuanan, Ditumabo, Dibut, Reserva and the Barrio of San Luis.
I found it in my computer while browsing for files that I can use for Batangbaler. It was already in Word document file. I can’t recall where I got this file but i’m sure i saw it in another computer, probably one I was asked to repair or check. Anyway, it was a public document and there’s no problem in putiing it on line. It was quite a revealing document. There are so many historical and cultural informations that provide a window to Baler life 50 years ago. Some places listed are new to me and i can’t place them in the present map like where in San Luis are Dikabilayan, Dimanawnaw, and Dikabanbana?
And there was a a street in Baler named Taft, what is it’s present name now? Or what happened to Mrs. Quezon’s vacation house in Binilwag? This document offers answers as well as new questions. Read it and enjoy.
Read the documents below or download the PDF version here.
MUNICIPALITY OF BALER
SUB-PROVINCE OF AURORA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. History and Cultural Life of the Town of Baler
II. History and Cultural Life of the Barrio of Bacong
III. History of the Community and Cultural Life of the Barrio of Calabuanan
IV. History of the Community and Cultural Life of the Barrio of Ditumabo
V. History of the Community and Cultural Life of the Barrio Dibut
VI. History of the Community of Barrio Reserva
VII. History of the Community of the Barrio of San Luis
The historical data herein complied based upon Memorandum No. 1934 s. 1952
have been gathered to supplement. It is believed the textbooks, manuals, course of
studies and other reference looking of local materials. They were submitted by the
chairman of every committee formulated in both poblacion and barrios. Due credits
therefore are accorded the following:
Mr. Roman Palispis – Chairman, Poblacion
All Central Teachers – Member
Mr. Pauliao Calderon – Chairman, Bo. Bacong
Ms. Felicidad Fita – Member
Ms. Amor Vilauar – Member
Ms. Adelaida Alberto – Member
Mr. Leoncio Querijero – Chairman, Bo. Calabuanan
Ms. Juliana Rivera – Member
Ms. Rodelia Bautista – Member
Ms. Lourdes Amado – Member
Mr. Menelio Rivera – Chairman, Bo. Dibut
Mr. Beato Laureles – Member
Mr. Ismael Bitong – Chairman, Bo. Dibut
Mr. Jose Glemao – Chairman, Bo. Reserva
Mr. Tiburcio Cabasco – Chairman, Bo. San Luis
Mrs. Lydia Gonzales – Member
Mrs. Josefina Laureles – Member
Mr. Angel Susada – Member
Ms. Nemecia Imperial – Member
Ms. Salud calderon – Member
Mr. Perfecto Abordo – Member
In collecting the data, the above committee formulated, central and barrios, were
directly responsible to make personal interviews with all folks and other persons who
have authentic knowledge of facts and other events past and present. Especially to those
persons who have on their possession documentary records of the past as well as those
who gave authentic information, credit is hereby acknowledged. These resource persons
are the following:
Mr. Gaudencio Trinidad
Mr. Damian Amazona
Mr. Anacleto Mijares
Dr. Juan C. Angara
Capt. Lino Angara
Mr. Pedro A. Lopez
The persons who translated in the vernacular the old records of the late Alejandro
Ferreras as those records are written in Spanish:
Mr. Pablo Marigmen
Mr. Paciano Macatiag
Coun. Pedro Novicio
Mr. Gervacio Sumverdez
Mr. Felipe Bitong
Mr. Bernardo Sindac
Mr. Pedro Sindac
Mr. Antonio Amazona
Mr. Serafio Padua
Mr. Sergio Gusilatar
Mr. Lucio Molina, Supt. of the Non-Christian Tribe
Vice Mayor Roman Macalintal
Ex- Councilor Tomas Angara and Honorio Buencamino
Present Councilor Cesario A. Pimentel of San Luis
Because of the proximity of the outline district of Baler, the customs, traditions
and beliefs are practically similar. These will be noted in the different data gathered from
poblacion and barrios.
The wholehearted cooperation of teachers was responsible in gathering all data
required by spending their extra period hence the compilation were made a success. To
those teachers and resource persons who is one way or another helped much in the
collection of the data, this office wishes to acknowledge its gratitude.
And to the noted errors in the reports as submitted by every Charmin of which
this office regrets very much, such commitment are reserve for deviation of future
revision of this issue.
Signed: PEDRO A. SINDAC
In-Charge, Baler Elem. School
NOTED: MR. MELENCIO BAUTISTA
HISTORY OF BALER
The official name of this town is BALER. This name had been used since the
Spanish Regime in this community. The name of this town came from three (3)
unexpected origins. First, it came from the Aeta’s term “IBALID” meaning
“PINAGBALIKAN” in Tagalog and “RETURNED” in English. For sometime, they
returned in this place because they forgot something they left.
At the early part of the sovereignty of Spain in the Philippines, a Spanish Priest
whose name was Father Valeriano was stationed in this town. He was very kind and won
the love of all the people. So that long after his death, the people always talked about
him. As years went by, the people shortened to Father Valer. After the Tidal Wave of
December 27, 1735, the people who did not perished in the calamity decided to return to
the site of the town before it was transferred near the sea. This is the town where it stands now. As a fitting remembrance to that priest for his kindness, the people who returned to this place called this site VALER. As time went by, because Filipinos hardly pronounced the letter V letter V was changed to letter B as in BALER.
Before the Spaniards discovered the Philippines, this community was already a
prosperous village ruled by just and wise chief. When a party of Spanish soldiers
discovered this prosperous village, the chieftain was known as LAKAN BALID. The
soldiers were very much surprised to find a trigging village so they asked the Chieftain
the name of the place. The ruler who although wise and justice people did not know
Spanish so he misinterpreted the question and thought the Spanish soldiers wanted to
know his name so he answered Lakan Balid. But as the soldiers found it hard to
pronounce the letter D, they pronounced it as LAKAN BALER. So that after many
repetitions the name Baler became so impressive that even the people adopted it. From
that time on, this small town was called BALER.
HOW STREETS WERE NAMED
The people of Baler were the families of Bitong, Lumasac, Angara and Carrasco.
To honor and remember these early pioneers, streets were named after them. The other
streets were named after our great men and heroes as Gomez, Burgos, Zamora, Rizal,
Mabini and Bonifacio. Two streets were named after American officials Governor Taft
and General Vanholtz while one was named after the town Patron St. Louis. Very lately,
the Quezon Avenue and Aurora Street were adopted to honor the memory of the greatest son and daughter of this town.
HOW THE COMMUNITY HAPPENED TO BE
IN THIS PARTICULAR PLACE
The original town of Baler was first place about two (2) kilometers in land but
Moro piracy and depredation compelled the people to transfer the town to Sabang near
the mouth of the river so that when the Moor pirates came, the people could see them and would have the time to plea to the mountain.
On December 27, 1735,the Feast Day of St. John, the people were very happy. In
the midst of their happiness, a big tidal wave struck down the town and when this
proceeded to sea, it carried almost everything from land. Few inhabitants, the survivors
escaped from the catastrophe by swimming to the mountain and others who were quite
far in land leave to toll the tail of the foe of that unhappy day. Among those who survive
were that of the Bitongs, Lumasacs, Angaras and Bihasas who decided to leave the site
by the sea which they named “KINAGUNASAN” meaning devastated and moved to
the site of Baler.
IMPORTANT EVENTS AND ITS HISTORY
1609 – The town of Baler was founded
1735 – Tidal wave washed away and destroyed the town of Baler which was first situated along the beach in Baler named KINAGUNASAN.
1737 – Barangay forms of government was established by Franciscan Priest
Sept. 20 to Oct. 3,1897 – Blood Compact of the Katipuneros at Sitio Dikaloyongan
Oct. 4, 1897 – The Katipuneros attacked the headquarter of the Spanish soldiers Resulting in the death of eleven (11) Katipuneros.
Oct.7-10,1897 – Establishment of the Real at Dikaloyongan
Dec. 1897 – Hon. Pedro Paterno visited the Real
June 27, 1898 – Beginning of besiege by the insurgents of the Spanish garrison composing of four (4) officers and fifty (50) enlisted men. Spaniards entrenched themselves inside the church.
1898 â€“ 1901 – Baler was under the Revolutionary Government
Jan. 20, 1898 – Commandant Atanacio Salvador came to Baler with a peace Order signed by the Capt. Spanish General and Gen. Aguinaldo
April 1899 – Lt. Guilmore and his rescue party who came to help the besiege Spanish officers and men were captured by the insurgents
Nov. 1, 1901 – Establishment of the Municipal government of the American Government
1903 – Civil Government was established by Gen. Vanholtz
Aug. 17, 1951 – Inauguration of the new political sub-division of the sub-province of Aurora and at the same time making the town of Baler as the sit of the sub-province.
The new sub-province is composed of the Municipalities of Baler, Casiguran, Maria Aurora and Dipaculao.
GREAT LEADERS WHO GUIDED THE
LIFE AND PROGRESS OF THE COMMUNITY
1. Miguel Hertazuela
2. Lucio Quezon
3. Luis Lumasac
4. Eufracio Bitong
5. Felix Gonzales
6. Aurelio Catipon
7. Isidro Angara
8. Santos Lumasac
9. Julian EspaÃ±a
10. Severo Gallegos
11. Osmundo dela Torre
12. Sevira Palispis
13. Alejandro Ferreras
14. Ceferania Belen
15. Damian Amazona
16. Lino Angara
17. Cipriano Valenzuela
18. Teodoro Ranillo
19. Manuel L. Gonzales
20. Manuel L. Quezon
21. Aurora Aragon Quezon
22. Anacleto Mijares
23. Dr. Juan C. Angara
HISTORICAL AND INTERESTING PLACE
IN THE COMMUNITY
1. The Quezon Memorial Park
2. The Birthspot of the Pres. Manuel l. Quezon
3. The Roman Catholic Church
5. Samento or the Recreational Spot of Baler
7. The House of Mrs. Quezon at Binilwag
8. The Cave of St. Isabel in Castillo
9. The room of Baler Elem. School Building No. 2 were the Japanese soldiers were tortured
and killed by civilian and guerillas
10. Disalet River which is the coolest water in baler as clear as crystal all the time and never
become muddy even after the heaviest rain
11. The Pier at Samento, more than 200 meters from the seashore to the bay
PRESENT MUNICIPAL OFFICIALS OF BALER
Mr. David T. Valenzuela – Municipal Mayor
Mr. Roman Macalintal – Vice Mayor
Mr. Agustin G. Alvarez – Municipal Treasurer
Mr. Herminio Trinidad – Municipal Secretary
Mr. Cesario a. Pimentel – Councilor
Mr. Pedro B. de Leon – Councilor
Mr. Clara A. Zubia – Councilor
Mr. Tomas Bitong – Councilor
Mr. Pablo G. Bitong – Councilor
Mr. Martin S. Palmero – Councilor
Mr. Pedro B. Novicio – Councilor
Mr. Rogelio Valenzuela – Councilor
Mr. Elpidio dela Torre – Councilor
IMPORTANT FACTS, INCIDENTS AND EVENTS THAT
A. DURING THE SPANISH OCCUPATION
Practically, all inhabitants of this community became Catholic. Good moral
character were maintained as to customs and traditions. About the end of the Spanish
time in this town, Dikaloyongan became the center for refugees.
B. DURING THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION TO WORLD WAR II
New ways of life were instilled in the heart of the people of Baler. More freedom
and ways of life were acquired by the inhabitants. Civil Government was established.
Public school teachers were organized.
B. DURING AND AFTER WOPRLD WAR II
On December 21, 1941,Baler was bombed by Japanese planes. About February or
March 1942, thousands of Japanese reign or stayed in different parts of Baler. They build
trenches and foxholes wherever they stayed. They made Baler Elementary School
Building as their garrison. People who evacuated were ordered to stay in the poblacion.
The then mayor of this locality, Dr. Juan C. Angara requested the civilians to campaign
for more food production. And this could only be done by staying in the country or
barrios. During the Japanese stay here, they commanded men, carabaos and all they need to work for them in the construction of foxholes, trenches and supply them food by force. People survive by striving hard for their living. They suffered from little food and little clothing. These came the invincibly brought of guerillas in the great wilderness of Baler when they saw their countrymen suffering from the harsh rule of the Japanese. They
know that the Japanese tortured and killed civilians. Time has come when the US Submarine Narwhal found its secret landing place in Dibut, a sitio in Baler. It became the gateway of supplying the Philippine guerillas with the war ammunitions from America. Guerillas became more and more brave as days went by, it was on September 23, 1944. On September 23 and 24 hundreds and thousands of planes flew over the town of Baler from east to west. They were the US planes. More hopes grew in the heart of the Filipinos. News heard that Mc Arthur made landing operation in Leyte. Dogfight of planes were witnessed in the air above Baler in the latter days. The American and the
Japanese. About the end of January 1945, the guerillas were in a position to seize in the Japanese garrison in Baler but on that day, when US Plane raided the garrison, the guerillas took charge of the land operation. That early morning, the Japanese escape going northward. The guerillas occupied the town. Military government was organized
led by guerilla First Lt. Filomeno Bihasa, Mr. Amando Guerrero was appointed Military Mayor. Captain Pedro B. Novicio took charge of the mopping-up operation, clearing the wilderness of Baler from the remaining scattered Japanese. Peace in Baler came little by little. Evacuees came to their homes in the poblacion for normal living. Classes in school were organized under the PCAU and latter transfer to church of the government. In the
same year, Baler Institute was reopened. Managed by Mr. Paulino Espinosa. The following years, Mrs. Aragon Quezon brought Carmelite American Priest who took and improved the growth of Catholic Religion here. When they won the love of the people, Fr. Leon, one of the priests, founded the Mt. Carmel High School. There are now two
leading high schools here, the Mt. Carmel and the Baler Institute.
DESTRUCTION OF LIVES, PROPERTIES AND
INSTITUTIONS DURING WARS ESPECIALLY IN
1896 TO 1900 AND 1941 TO 1945
Of course more lives were lost during the Spanish time. Because of the attacked
of the insurgents to the Spaniards and although it was hard struggle, it can be recorder in history a pride of this town for our local heroes met their success by capturing and
driving away the Spaniards from this town. _________________ was merely developed
because our people engage in trouble most of the time. During the Japanese time, there
were casualties in of Baler had never been a field of battle.
None of such had been _______________. No bloody encounter had been witnessed
here. As people were ordered to go to countries, barrios or homestead. The result were
that large tract of land were cultivated which were planted to rice, coconuts and many
others. Today, the inhabitants of this place abundantly harvest fruits of their sacrifices. It
is not ____________________ a mistake to make the Baler as the capital of the sub- province of Aurora because financially it can stand in her feet.
MEASURES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TOWARDS
REHABILITATION OF RECONSTRUCTION
FOLLOWING WORLD WAR II
Relief from different government agencies were sent to Baler. There were either
clothes or food supplies. The Philippine war Damaged Commission did a great help to
the rehabilitation of the people of Baler. People began to repair or construct their homes
and educate their children.
MYTHS, LEGENDS,BELIEFS AND SUPERSTITIONS AND
During the early Spanish time, baler was located in Sabang. The castle as we see
now in Castillo where the chapel is built, was the same castle built during the Spanish
regime. During those days, Baler was not a safe place to live-in because of the frequent
visit of the Moro pirates. They did not only get boys and girls but also valuable things of
the people. There was a reign of terror. People suffered much of from the Moros. At last,
when people have no more hope for a happy life, all in despair, St. Isabel and St. Louis,
the patron of Baler, made miracles. These saints fought against the Moros. Every Moro
that landed from the Vintah at Castillo at the mouth of the river suffered much from the
sun, only weapon of the saints which made them blind. Supernatural power invaded the
Moros. From that time on, no more Moros came to rub the people. It said also by our old
people that by the power of these two saints, even today, no fighting will ever been
stayed from this town.
PROVERBS AND SAYINGS
1. Bend the tree while it is young.
2. If punishment reaches not the mind, it hardens the open doors.
3. Wine has drown more men than water.
4. God helps him that helps himself.
5. From savings come having.
6. Beware of little expenses, a small leak will seek a great ship.
7. He will always be a slave, who knows not to earn and save.
8. No man is born without falls, but he is best has the fewest.
9. A good servant makes a good master.
10. He, who serves well, need not fear to ask his wages.
11. Better a free bird than a captive king.
12. A pretty woman is a welcome guest.
13. Happy is the man that owes nothing.
14. Today’s egg is better than tomorrow’s hen.
15. Many bring their clothes to church rather than themselves.
16. No gains without pains.
17. No sweet without sweat.
18. The wise man got his wisdom from those who have nothing.
19. A boy’s love is like water in a sieve.
20. A heart without love is like a violin without string.
21. Beautiful women without religion are like flowers without perfumes.
22. Women are entitled to life, liberty and the pursuit of man.
HISTORY OF THE COMMUNITY AND THE CULTURAL
LIFE OF THE BARRIO OF BACONG
1. PRESENT OFFICIAL NAME OF THE BARRIO – BACONG
2. POPULAR NAME:
a. Present – Bacong
b. Past – Bonotan
3. The present place was established in 1919. This place extends eastward west
of the Pagsanjan Irrigation Canal. The boundary line of Suclayin and Bacong where
the first settlement was made by the families of Animas, Angaras, Amazonas, both
native of Baler after the name of wild plants Bacong which were growing everywhere. Now these plants were growing along the beach. From the first settlement going westward, the Bacong proper and extensive rice field
can be seen.
4. NAME OF SITIOS:
4. Mag-asawang Dao
5. ORIGINAL FAMILIES
1. Gregorio Amazona
2. Paciano Leander
3. Severo Pimentel
4. Salvador Angara
5. Juan Almonte
6. Teodoro Morillo
7. Gerardo Caballes
8. Custodio Nortez
9. Pablo Marigmen
10. Andres Marigmen
11. Pedro Marigmen
12. Antonino delos Santos
13. Luis Pimentel
14. Hipolito Macatiag
15. Fausto Espinosa
16. Jose Querijero
17. Ladislao Angara
18. Pedro Santualla
19. Fortunato EsureÃ±a
20. Pedro Poblete
21. Ladislao Aragon
6. THE EARLIEST BARRIO LIEUTENANT
1. Luis Pimentel
2. Emilio Gonzales
3. Ladislao Aragon
4. Fortunato EsureÃ±a
5. Severo Pimentel
6. Pedro Poblete
7. Lacadio Tolentino
8. Gregorio Morillo
7. HISTORY OF THE PLACE, HOW POPULATED
In the early days, most of the people in Bacong live on a piece of land situated
along the Suclayin River. When the Philippine Legislature passed the Homestead Law in
1910, the people got homestead further west of the sitio of Bonotan almost five (5)
kilometers from the first settlement. The homesteaders began clearing the land. Later they established a barrio site. The proposed barrio site is a part of the parcel of land donated
by Paciano Macatiag and Fausto Espinosa in the southeast, Antonio delos Santos in the
north and Marciano Avenilla in the southwest. The people began to built their houses in
the barrio site. It was in 1922, when the first temporary schoolhouse was built in Centro
in response to the need and request of the people. Upon the suggestion of Mr. Angel D.
Paro, Supervising Teacher of Baler, the school site be located in the heart of the barrio
site near a spring. Simultaneously, the schoolhouse was transferred to the permanent
place. A two-hectare school site and a PTA was organized thereafter. Mr. Nicolas F.
Angara was the first teacher. President Quirino issued an Executive Order appropriating
several million pesos for the opening of all classes that were not opened last July 1, 1952
due to the lack of school fund. On his desire to give his must education to the people, the
Bacong barrio school open a Grade 6 extension class on November 27, 1952. Now
Bacong has a complete elementary school with an enrollment of 176 pupils with four
The construction of government road traversing the barrio of Bacong and
connecting the barrio of Calabuanan and the town of Maria Aurora will make this barrio
one of the most progressive barrios of the sub-province of Aurora.
8. IMPORTANT FACTS, INCIDENTS OR EVENTS THAT TOOK PART
1. DURING REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD – no record
2. DURING WORLD WAR II
a. The following were tortured and killed by the Japanese:
1. Basilio Marigmen
2. Tranquilino Friginal
3. Salvador Paruhinog
2. Birthday Celebration
4. Moro-Moro and drama
5. Dances and Ball
7. Celebration of Barrio Fiesta
8. Services rendered by the young man before marriage
9. SUPERTITIONS /BELIEFS
1. Kulam or Witchcraft
2. Aswang or Witch
4. Flagellant on Good Friday
1. Ball and Dances
4. Sipa and the different kinds of School Games
11. WATCH OR CLOCK
12. OTHER FOLKTALES – None
13. INFORMATIONS, BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS
14. NAME OF FILIPINO AUTHORS
15. PRESENT AND PAST COUNCILORS OF BACONG
1. Cipriano Valenzuela
2. Diego Gomez
3. Andres Aragon
4. Felix Sindac
5. Clemente Mejico
6. Exequiel Undan
7. Tomas Angara
8. Pedro Poblete
9. Pedro B. Novicio
16. IMPORTANT FACTS, INCIDENTS OR EVENTS THAT TOOK PLACE
1. DURING THE SPANISH OCCUPATION - NONE
2. DURING AMERICAN OCCUPATION - NONE
4. DURING JAPANESE OCCUPATION
Strong guerilla forces were organized by Capt. Pedro B. Novicio. Many able-body men joined the forces. It was on January 26, 1945 when this guerilla troupes ambushed Japanese army trucks bound for Bongabon. After a brief encounter, the Bacong guerillas retreated without casualties. Several Japanese soldiers were wounded. One of the army trucks was destroyed on the way and deserted by the enemies.
HISTORY OF THE BARRIO OF CALABUANAN
1. PRESENT NAME – CALABUANAN
2. POPULAR NAME OF THE BARRIO – CALABUANAN
3. DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT – No accurate record as to Barrio was organized
4. ORIGINAL FAMILIES
a. Bitong family
b. Friginal Family
c. Sindac Family
d. Pimentel Family
e. Silva Family
5. LIST OF BARRIO LIEUTENANTS FROM THE EARLIEST TIME
a. Andres Bitong
b. Felipe Bitong
c. Tomas Seranno
d. Simplicio Amatorio
e. Teodorico Bitong
f. Pedro Sindac
6. STORY OF THE OLD BARRIO – No available information
7. DATA ON HISTORICAL EVENT
Sometime in 1943, there was an encounter between the guerillas and the Japanese
in the school of this barrio.
8. IMPORTANT FACTS AND INCIDENTS
A. DURING THE SPANISH TIME – No available information
B. DURING THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION
TO WORLD WAR II – None
C. DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II
The present site of the barrio had been the hideout of the guerillas. Sometime in
1943, the guerillas and the Japanese had an encounter in the old school site. Many of the
Japanese soldiers were killed and some of the guerillas were wounded.
9. DESTRUCTION OF LIVES, PROPERTIES AND INSTITUTIONS DURING THE WARS ESPECIALLY IN 1896-1900 AND 1941- 1945
The Japanese soldiers burned the school buildings and tortured some of the
civilians. A new school building 2-room was constructed by the American War Damaged
Commission in April 1951.
To the newly married couple, both parents spread polish rice where the young
couple will pass.
11. MYTHS, LEGENDS, BELIEFS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF
It is good to plant root crops during starry nights.
12. POPULAR SONGS, GAMES AND AMUSEMENTS
a. Pagparito Namin
c. Catching wild Pigs and deer with net (Batig)
13. PUZZLES AND RIDDLES
a. Mag-inang baka nanganak ng tag-isa.
b. Nauna’y banal, sumusunod ay matakaw, nahuhuli’y maingay.
14. PROVERBS AND SAYINGS
a. Ang lumalakad ng marahan matinik ma’y marahan.
b. Ang maghasik ng hangin bagyo ang aanihin.
c. Mapait ang magtiis ngunit ang bunga’y matamis.
15. METHOD OF MEASURING TIME
a. By means of the sun
b. By the sound of the bird â€“ kalaw (Hornbill)
16. OTHER FOLKTALES
No available information
17. SITIOS COMPOSING THE PRESENT BARRIO
HISTORY OF THE COMMUNITY AND CULTURAL LIFE
OF THE SITIO OF DITUMABO
1. PRESENT NAME OF THE SITIO – DITUMABO
2. POPULAR NAME – DITUMABO
3. PRESENT PLACE
The sitio is at the west side of Ditumabo River. It was founded in 1950. It is at
the foot of Ditumabo Mountain. It is on a highest sloping ground and adjoining the Baler-
Bongabon National Road. It is 14 kilometers from the poblacion.
4. ORIGINAL FAMILIES
1. Antonio Amazona
2. Mariano Amazona
3. Casimiro Morillo
4. Rufino Villareal
5. Juan Herminigildo
6. Emilio Gonzales
7. Delfin Pimentel
8. Serafio Padua
5. EARLIEST BARRIO LEIUTENANT – Antonio Amazona
6. HISTORY OF THE PLACE
In the year 1950, during the incumbency of Mr. Pedro Guerrero, then a Munucipal
Mayor, the idea of organizing the place into a regular community was realized. An area
of land about four (4) hectares was occupied and lots and streets were live-out. Since
then, people from adjoining sites of Diet, Daikyo, Dialatnan, Suguit and Tanag gradually
moved to the present site. There are now twenty (20) residential.
7. HOMES AND BARRIO CHAPEL
There is also 2â€“room school building with a school population of more than a
hundred pupils. Mr. Meneleo C. Rivera and Mr. Beato Laureles are the first teachers.
8. IMPORTANT FACTS AND INCIDENTS OR EVENTS
a. Revolutionary Period – Unknown
b. World War II
1. Japanese imperial forces built ammunition dams around the place
2. An outpost of the Japanese forces of the rear guards command
b. Dances under a Ramada
d. Birthday Celebration
10. SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS
12. WATCH OR CLOCK
a. Telling time by the sound of the bird- kalaw
b. Telling time by the shadow
A. DITUMABO- The Hunted Mountain
This often called by the populace of the locality that during a very bright day
penetrating the jungle of the foot of the mountain, one will experience a very unusual
occurrence. An abrupt change of weather accompanied by heavy rains, thick clouds and
thunder seen upon reaching the high altitude. Some uncommon wild animals like white
chicken, big snake and hoarded goats appear. These make the venture hazard.
B. DITUMABO WATERFALLS
Fishermen of the community make it an expression when they’re fishing ”
Beware of the big eel”. A human-size fish appear and mate one under the clear water
whenever he dive-in. He says any fish swimming toward the waterfalls dip. These make
them frightened to venture to catch the fish in the waterfalls.
14. INFORMATION BOOKS, DOCUMENTS – No record
15. NAME OF FILIPINO AUTHOR – None
16. PRESENT COUNCILORS
a. Pedro Novicio
b. Eugenio Valenzuela
17. FACTS AND INCIDENTS
a. SPANISH OCCUPATION – None
b. AMERICAN OCCUPATION – None
c. JAPANESE OCCUPATION
The place was made a target of the American Air Force s because of the
ammunition dump made by the Japanese Forces. This is authenticated by the empty
bombshells found around the vicinity.
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE
BARRIO OF DIBUT
In the southern part of the town of Baler lies a barrio of the non-Christian tribe
known as DIBUT. Its name was derived from “Di” which mean “in” and “Abut” which
mean “hole”. The combination of these two words “DIBUT” made originated because if
you are out of sea, you cannot see the cave as if it were just a hole between two
mountains. Dikapinisan, Dimanayat and Dikapanikihan are part of its jurisdiction. The
establishment of this barrio was unknown for it has no available records. Original
families were unknown too for the same reason. The list of officials from the earliest time
of Mr. Teodorico Molina, their governor to date are Malitog, Isidro, Santos, Talio,
Baludong, Ayano, Banguwag, Surab, Demo and Elionam, the present president.
On the early time of Dibut, the story runs this way. There was __________ by
who saw a passage between two mountains. They thought it was the mouth of a river but
it was not. When they are out at sea, they got a shore and they found out that Negritos
were the inhabitants who housed in huts. It was a nice place for those non-Christians to
live in. The place was covered by verdant forest and it was very near the seashore. Those
Negritos are water-loving people so they stayed where there are fresh water that cause
them not to build permanent houses. They built house with a roof made of rattan leaves
and flooring made of top leaves. These huts are movable. The populace are all Negritos.
It is composed of more or less 200 inhabitants. During the World War II, Dibut played an
important role. It became the place where ammunitions and all kinds of guns were stored.
It had been the place where submarines hide and brought all supplies of guerillas. The
submarine brought clothing and food supplies too. These people do not have educational
institutions to educate them before for those years they do not want to be educated.
Since 1935 under the leadership of Governor Teodorico Molina, they began to
elect their official of their own. Their governor was a Christian formerly appointed by the
Secretary of Interior. Now they are governed by the Superintendent of non-Christian
Their most important industries are fishing and hunting. Burying the dead in any
part of the place especially under their house was their traditional trait. They use to offer
things and food on the burial places. The arrangement of marriage are arrange by the
parents before they celebrated a wedding party. Only parents talked about the courtship
of a young to a young lady. The people in the place believed in anitos. For example, they
say that if you burn the cogon grass on the top of the Salasay Hill it will surely rain. This
superstitions are unbelievable by the educated people. This history and the cultural life of
the Barrio of Dibut is not yet well modified because no one from the barrio folk can tell
the complete history of the place as the old folk transferred to Umiray.
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF BARRIO RESERVA
Long time ago, Reserva was unknown to the people of Baler as it is now. In the
early part of the 19th Century, an American Lieutenant Governor of the province of
Nueva Ecija by the name of Mr. Thromhon and his comrade settled in this place and
established a settlement farm school for non-Christian tribe. It is said that this place
belong to the province of Nueva Ecija and this was then the reason why they open an
institution in the locality. Believing that in this way it was easy for them to ban those wild
people who needed to be _____________ and educated.
At the middle of the 19th Century, the place was returned to the province of
Tayabas now Quezon. And it was then the time when new era of economic development
took place. Late President Manuel L. Quezon of Baler that these big tract of land which
has an aggregated area of about 200 hectares should be converted into a corporation. The owner of which were his entire family and all cousins. This means to say that the place
was to be acquired exclusively by his entire clan alone and thus no future claimant should
be allowed to enter the land whether it be by homestead, by sale, by lease or by
corporation. Thus the term RESERVA was materialized and became known not only to
the people of Baler but also by the people living in the barrio.
However, the idea was discontinued because the aim perhaps is contrary to his
conscience besides his town mates might believe that he was exercising his dictatorial
powers over his town mates and other people who are living then in Baler. Because of his
present position as the Head of the Senate so the proposal was given-up.
Later on, the Bureau of Lands looked over the disposal of lands and sub-divided it
into four hectare lots and declared it open to all qualified homesteaders to acquire such
portion of land regardless of the place where they come from. Pertaining to the records to
justify the earliest establishment of some family, pioneers of Reserva who were lived and
cultivated some portion of the area, there was no definite records to explain its clearness
nor a tale from some old men in the municipality of Baler who are still alive to enumerate
the first governing officials of the locality. There is no one else who can tell the story of
the same sites and barrios where once populated and later became extinct. Perhaps this
was because the place during the earliest time was supposed to be the roaming place of
the savage people whom they feared and believed to be all headhunters. This condition
gave light to the ideas that Reserve for a long time was never looked upon as a
worthwhile place to settle and live-in.
During the Spanish Occupation as it was said, the place was the refuge of those
people who did not like to take allegiance to the Spanish crown. When war brake up
between the Spain and Philippines. Those refugees were the first one who joined the
Katipunan. In 1941 and 1945, Reserva again become the bastion and meeting center of
the Filipino guerillas who fought bravely in a battle against those Japanese army who
were stationed in many parts of Baler. However, during those dark days, there was no
casualties listed as far as recorded especially in the part of the Filipino soldiers. Reserva
then became intact and unconquerable by the enemies. Only farm crops were destroyed
because some of the products stored by the owners and those that are supposed to be
ready for harvest were looted by those unscrupulous persons who get advantage of the
situation. But the destruction of food supplies were at once recovered because the farm
owners after liberation did not lose time to cultivate their respective farm so that after a
few years of hard labor their harvest filed in volume that will exceed by product
harvested during pre-war level.
With regards to their traditions, customs and parties in their domestic and social
life, there were still a prevailing practice that during entertainment, some responsible old
men in the community were chosen to leave the party into merry-making. They sometime
chose a man or a woman to have the “pandanggo dance” in the party and sometime mass
singing were conducted to make the affair more happily and lively. In the said party, all
the people in the community were invited. Guests were serve in pork, lechon, wild pig
meat, fish, rice and native wine or “basi” extracted from sugarcanes. In the party too, men were dressed-up in Barong Tagalog and wrist pants while women were patadyong, skirt
and peÃ±a cimonos.
All parties in the community which were being held were witnessed by this old
man and therefore they were considered to be the absolute contributors of happiness
among all guests and without their presence the parties were but entirely monotonous.
Strange beliefs were still prevailing among the people of the barrio. They’re
contented that a child born at the time of which the moon was in its last quarter, such
child was totally weak among all mental capabilities. But when the child was born at the
time when it was in full moon, such child will posses an extra ordinary talent in all
academic works when actually attending school. But ________________ was regarded as
a mere work that anybody in the community could perform. But this duty is entirely at
the hand of an old man who has the knowledge on the diction about the future of the
child. This means to say that this man will choose the time of the day, the month when
the child is to be baptized to ensure its success in life.
Courtship among young man and woman were conducted in such a way that only
parents of both parties were the sole responsible persons of arranging the contract of
marriage. The young woman seldom sees her lover during their supposed courtship yet
she is contented to place herself as wife of her proposed husband. After marriage, man
may gave some dowries in the form of goods and other things to the family of the young
woman as a reward in bringing-up their daughter into womanhood.
When death comes to any member of the family in the community, the people
gathered to the home where the dead is and the homage to the mourners as a token of
condolence. Some of these people contributed money and other things as a help in the
expenses of the family for the burial of their dead. Before the burial is performed, the
dead person is being offered with various kind of food placed on the top of his head.
These foods were supposed to be the food supply of his soul to the next world.
On Saint Day, these practices were still a common business among many families.
They believed that the soul of the dead is still on the way to the next world and needed to
be given and their food supply were enable him to continue the journey without food
With regard to festival among the barrio people, seldom they give the practice due
to the fact that preparation of all foods to be served to all the guests will be a great burden for them to do. Many people did not like to burden themselves to exhaust their supposed savings. They considered the affair to be luxury and must be stopped for the sake of the community. Saw to it that without festivities to attend to and enjoy themselves once in a while will mean a total __________ -out of social progress among themselves. So, they did not all together discarded some festivities in the community and in some instances they even have festival in the barrio as many times during the year. In this festival, many people prepare good foods for their visitas. Dances, singing and other amusements were being held in their homes.
Drinking “basi”, a native wine extracted from sugarcane, is offered also to their
visitors. After a few hours, many became intoxicated. Persons were seen lying here and
there. Vomiting all the foods they have eaten during the day. The festivity lasted for one
to three days.
Punishment of various crimes can never escape among those wrong doers who
violated the existing laws of this barrio. Those who committed robbery of large cattle
were given six months punishment to serve as barrio cleaner. Those that have stolen
chicken and other fowls were given light punishment as cleaning the yard of the Barrio
Lieutenant. Those who inflicted slight or grave injuries to other persons will serve one
month in jail and their work were but to help in the household of the Barrio Lieutenant
and his subordinate officials. But those who committed adultery, bigamy and murder will
serve many years in jail with heavy guards. These offenders were given legal foods
consisted of course rice, vegetables with no fish and meat. They were served meal only
two times a day.
There were still a very strong belief among the people of the barrio that when a
man, woman or a child became sick, a witch or mangkukulam, aswang or amas, pigmea
was the one responsible for this. People experienced this thing many times. They
believed that the causes for sickness were really attributed to the inhuman practice of
these evil doer persons. Luckily, there were some men in the barrio who perfectly know
how to cure the sickness simply by applying some herbs taken from the forest nearby.
Origin of the world came upon their belief that their creator “God in Heaven” was the one
responsible to have perfected the world they have live-in. Land were created and exposed
to man or a place where to plant crops. The harvest of which served as the sources of
While mountains are the permanent dwelling place of those wild animals and
birds of the air which were all subject as supplementary food of the people.
Caves were created according to the belief that they were the homes of those
hermits and giants who once mingled with the common people of the barrio but left for
inclusion in this cave for unknown reason. These hermits and giants as they believed
were the kidnappers of persons especially those young ones for their food. Seas, lakes
and rivers were also created for permanent homes of various kinds of fish and they were
created as the supplementary food also of the people when poor harvest occurred.
Numerous plants such as rice, corn, sugarcane, fruit trees that were abundantly found
growing in the barrio were supposed to be the gift giving by the Almighty God to all
barrio folk for their permanent sources of food supply.
Animals of various kind tribes abundantly in accordance with the environment
where they were mostly found. There were domestic animals found in many homes in the
barrio like carabaos, dogs, cats, hens, pigs and goats. In the wild forest which were
surrounded the whole locality, uncountable number of some kinds of animals were found
too. They were wild but nature keeps them increasing by thousands and can be roughly
estimated to be even greater in number than those of the domestic animals owned by the
people of the community. The sun, the moon and the stars which were the sources of light of all creatures on earth, they believed because of life generated from heavenly bodies
upon them. They even worship them because they were the one responsible for the care
of young children and young plants to grow vigorously. Eclipse both of the sun and the
moon was considered to be the sign of the approaching bad omen. During the progress of the eclipse, the people remain quiet in their homes. They are seemed peeping at the
windows as they believed this bad omen is accompanied by deadly diseases that they did
not know who among themselves shall be stricken with such diseases. Their fear was so
terrible that most of the people even forget their meals during the day and the night of
TRADITIONAL SONGS OF BARRIO PEOPLE IN TAGALOG VERSES
1. Otoy ay matulog na
Ang nanay mo ay wala pa
At naroon sa laguarda
Namimitas ng Sampaga.
2. Ale Aleng namamangka
At kunin mo itong bata
Idala mo sa Maynila
Ipalit mo ng marhuya.
3. Ang ina mo ay wala pa
At naroon nagsisimba
Ikaw ay dadalhan niya
Ng magandang stampa.
4. Kami ngayon ay aalis na
At sa amin ay uuwi na
At ang madlang alaala
Sa iyo ay iiwan na.
5. Kaya irog matuwa ka
Bukas uli babalik pa
Pauwi na ang madalang disa
Asahang momg mahal kita.
POPULAR GAMES AND AMUSEMENTS
1. Taguan or Hide and Seek
POPULAR PROVERBS AND SAYINGS OF THE COMMUNITY
1. Kung saan ang hilig ng kahoy ay doon nabubuwal.
2. Walang umigi ang buhay na di muna naghirap.
3. Pag may saya, may lungkot.
4. Ang hirap ay may kapalit na kaginhawahan.
5. Pag may utang ay pihong magbabayad.
6. Walang utang na di pagbabayarin.
7. Ang buhay ng tao ay katulad ng gulong ng kariton, bukas ay nasa ibabaw at sa
makalawa ay nasa ilalim.
8. Pag lumusong ay pihong aahon.
9. Mailap man daw ang matsing ay mahuhuli rin.
10. Ang magtanim ng mabuti ay mabuti rin ang aanihin.
PUZZLES AND RIDDLES
1. Pag araway mahaba, paggabi ay malapad.
2. Lakad lakad ng matulin, wala namang nararating.
3. Kung araw ay mahimbing, Kung gabi naman ay gising.
4. Tatlong magkakapatid, mapuputi ang dibdib.
5. Aso kong si bangilan, araw gabi’y umuungol.
METHODS OF TELLING TIME
1. Shadow or sun
2. Bird- Kalaw
Barrio Reserva is now getting well in its economic development. Almost
all its area is in the hands of an active homeseekers so that a bright future of
locality is held assure. From the present time, Reserva is under the jurisdiction of
Vice Mayor of Baler, Mr. Roman Macalintal with his two barrio lieutenants name
Gregorio Molina and Maximiano Valenzuela. Their work in the locality are all
excellent. Time will not be long to wait for a servant sooner or later to be one of
the best granary of the whole sub-province of Aurora for its area are now under
HISTORY AND THE CULTURAL LIFE OF
BARRIO SAN LUIS
PRESENT OFFICIAL NAME OF THE BARRIO – SAN LUIS
Present – SAN LUIS
Past – INATIGAN
The present place was established in 1923. This was extended part of the old San
Luis called INATIGAN. San Luis was given to the present place because it was the first
barrio in Baler in which was name after the town Patron Saint. The past name Inatigan
was given by the native during those days when they acquired the land for their living.
Afterwards, these pieces of land were acquired by force of some persons who possessed
higher categories than those natives so that they called this place “INATIGAN” meaning
NAME OF SITIOS
1. Mariano Espinosa
2. Eulogio Espinosa
3. Feliciano Espinosa
4. Leon Bihasa
5. Leoncio Bihasa
6. Diego Bihasa
7. Braulio Bihasa
8. Bruno Bihasa
9. Arsenio Lumasac
10. Moises Sison
11. Alfredo Maliwanag
EARLIEST BARRIO LIEUTENANTS
1. Pastor Angara
2. Ruferto Bihasa
3. Angel Dukha
4. Clemente Friginal
5. Felix Sison
6. Benito Leander
7. Pedro Friginal
8. Casiano Friginal
HISTORY OF THE PLACE
The site of San Luis is about two kilometers on the eastern part of the place. The
early name was Inatigan. It is about six kilometers from the poblacion of Baler. During
the presidency of Mr. Pedro A. Lopez and Councilor Leoncio Bihasa in 1920, a school
house was built in the old San Luis or Inatigan. A lot of one half hectare was borrowed
from CouncilorLeoncio Bihasa. The classes of Grades I and II were opened under the
Supervising Teacher Mr. Angel D. Paro. The teacher assigned in this school was Mr.
Pedro A. Sindac.
The old barrio of San Luis was no barrio site wherein to build their own houses.
Fortunately the two homesteaders in the barrio M. Manuel Amazona and Mr. Mariano
Espinosa donated some parts of their homesteads for the permanent barrio site of San
Luis and the school site.
In 1922, the school building was built by all the people of the barrio. All the
people from the old San Luis or Inatigan transferred to this barrio site of San Luis in the
same year. They began to build their permanent home until at the present time. The
houses were built among the core streets in this happy and prosperous barrio of San Luis.
At present, San Luis has a complete elementary school with the school population of 365
pupils. The school site was increased to two hectares. This is one of the most progressive
barrios in Baler.
IMPORTANT FACTS AND INCIDENTS OR EVENTS
THAT TOOK PLACE
A. DURING REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD – NO RECORD
B. DURING WORLD WAR II
The following civilians were tortured by the guerillas:
1. Teodora Ranillo
3. Capt. Vicente Villaluz
The following civilians were killed by the Japanese soldiers:
1. Manuel Inocencio
2. Inocentes Querijero
2. Dances and Ball
3. Birthday Celebration
5. Town Fiesta Celebration
6. Moro-Moro and Dances
7. Services rendered by the gentleman before marriage
1. Ball and Dances
4. Different kinds of Games
WATCH OR CLOCK
Kalaw or by the Shadow
INFORMATION BOOKS, DOCUMENTS
NAME OF FILIPINO AUTHOR
THE PRESENT AND PAST COUNCILORS OF SAN LUIS
1. Enrique Querijero
2. Mariano Lumasac
3. Tiburcio Morillo
4. Eulalio Querijero
5. Maximo Cortez
6. Leoncio Bihasa
7. Diego Gomez
8. Tomas Angara
9. Justo Ritual
10. Honorio Bihasa
11. Estanislao Buencamino
12. Francisco Marzan
13. Tomas Angara
14. Cesario Pimentel-Present
IMPORTANT FACTS, INCIDENTS OR EVENTS
THAT TOOK PART
A. DURING SPANISH OCCUPATION – NONE
B. DURING AMERICAN OCCUPATION – NONE
C. DURING JAPANESE OCCUPATION
Strong guerilla forces were organized by some of the people of San Luis. The
UCAP protected the barrio from some invaders. Radio was erected in the old San Luis
just about one and a half kilometer from the national road by Capt. Voltz, Capt. Villaluz,
a well known guerilla died in the forest in Dibalo. An American Captain was shot at the
Ditimabo by mistake of the guerillas who were seriously wounded and was finally
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